The various types of excavation equipment used in building projects include:
It is an important equipment for earth movement. It converts engine energy into tractive energy. Tractors are usually worked by diesel engines.
It is used to excavate earth of all classes except rock and load it into wagons. They are mounted on crawless tracks. It consists of a mounting, cab, boom, dipper stick and hoist line.
These machines are high powered tractors with caterpillar or crawler tracks fitted with a mould board or blade at the front for stripping excavation up to a depth of 400mm.
In angle dozers, blades are attached to the front side of the tractor at an angle other than 90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the tractor.They are used for pushing the material to side, right or left.
It is a self-sufficient machine which can dig, load, haul, and discharge the material in uniformly thick layers.
They are used to excavate soft earth from below the ground and to deposit or load into wagons.
Clamshell consists of a bucket of two halves, which are hinged together at top.the bucket halves can be attached to the shovel-crane units or the boom of the dragline. Clamshell is used to excavate soft to medium materials and loose material at or below the existing ground surface.
The backhoe is hydraulic excavator with a bucket attached to the hydraulic controlled boom and stick. In this excavator, the excavation bucket moves in downward and backward direction during excavation. It is used to excavate below the natural surface to keep precise control of depth of excavation at close range work.
These are the equipment used for excavation of the river, lake or sea for the purpose of deepening.
Ripper is used for ripping of rock which is an alternative to the costly and time-consuming drilling and blasting process. The ripper can be wheel mounted or towed type which is pulled by one tractor and paused by another.
This is used for levelling and finishing earth-work. They can be either towed type or motorized type.
The selection of excavation equipment for a particular building project depends on the nature of the job size, distance, method of disposal, and construction time assigned, etc.